Nuclear energy refers to the energy of an atomic nucleus that can be released by fission, fusion or radioactive decay. Researchers within SUPA are working on aspects of all three of these nuclear energy processes. At Strathclyde, advanced approaches to inertial confinement fusion are being developed and researchers are modelling atomic spectroscopy data for use in diagnostics of magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. Research into plasma instabilities occurring in both types of fusion plasma is also undertaken. Staff at Glasgow University are developing new approaches to radiograph nuclear waste produced in fission reactors, whilst at Heriot-Watt the materials used in fission and fusion reactors are investigated.