Power-grids will become enormous networks of consumers and generators, consumers wishing power at random times, and generators, partially producing power from renewables at random times. To maintain a more reliable, smooth, and cost effective deliver of energy, we from the University of Aberdeen are working on the design of a grid that is:
- Stable and can have at any time consumers and generators being added or excluded, and still can supply the demand, without needing any intelligent control.
- Smart and predicts the variations in power generation and demand, and allows us to use that information in a dynamic and interactive way to get optimally deliver the necessary demand.
- Multi-layered and transmits not only energy but also information, reliably and effectivelly.
- Robust and if power load exceeds a threshold, grid automatically redistributes power loads over the network to prevent cascade failure (blackout) .
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 R. Yang, W.-X. Wang, Y.-C. Lai, and G.-R. Chen, Phys. Rev. E 79, 026112 (2009).; W.-X. Wang and Y.-C. Lai, Phys. Rev. E 80, 036109 (2009).